I just need to make it to June.

I’m juggling a new baby, teaching from home, a million good intentions in the kitchen, and oh yea, NATIONAL BOARD CERTIFICATION.

So forgive me, I do not have a new blog post.  I most likely will not have one until after June 12, when I have *officially* turned in my LAST component for review.

Instead, I’m going to offer a favorite meme.  My senior students have been sending me support via a different meme every day.  This is today’s meme, and really should just be plastered on my desk.  Enjoy.  I’ll write when I can.

You Should(n't) Be Writing - The Startup - Medium


Teaching Online with Microsoft Teams: How Covid19 has forced my hand

Oh my, it’s been a long year. And now, it seems, I’ve gone months without posting.  Part of this is learning to balance motherhood and teaching; part of this is the Covid-19 pandemic that has re-shaped our daily lives in a way few anticipated.  I started November loathing daycare.  They got to spend all day with my little one, experiencing every first multiple times.  I left as early as I could to pick him up every day, terrified I missed something.

And now, I miss daycare.

Like most teachers in Virgina, shelter in place doesn’t just mean learning to teach virtually.  It might mean sharing your workspace with someone in a completely different field, shooing the cats away who clearly do not understand the term “social distancing,” forcing yourself to work on a 70 degree spring day while woefully glancing out on your garden, a mere 20 feet away.  For some of us, it might mean suddenly finding yourself employed as mom, teacher, and daycare provider.

All this in the module of my absolute favorite class, my mecca, my corner of the scholastic galaxy: my Future Fiction course with the seniors.  In a way, it’s quite fitting: re-formatting MicrosoftTeams for online teaching because of a new virus induced pandemic.  It has all the great makings of dystopian literature, except the part where this is real.  And, the more I re-map Alan Moore’s Watchmen, Netflix’s Black Mirror, and Margaret Atwood’s Handmaid’s Tale, the more the ironies of those novels morph into real, eerie connections to the world today.

And my nerd self is so ready for this version of the class. Weird, I know.

In the spirit of being an educator, I’m sharing how I’m re-tooling Teams to help me teach.  In the spirit of trying to be mom and teacher, it’s happening in list form, because when the noise machine fails to drown out the husband making baby food via instapot and blender, it’s my turn to be on call.

How to use Microsoft Teams to teach Online

  1. Embrace the multifunctionality of Teams and become a Microsoft Classroom.  Asking students to use google docs, Blackboard, PowerSchool…some other platform but to check  in with Teams is going to be a time suck and only cause chaos.
    The posting area is a great way to make annoucements, remind students, and make quick administrative memos.

    You’ll wind up explaining things via email, on the actual document of the assignment, again on the platform…Teams allows you to have multiple spaces within the platform to deliver instructions in different ways.  For example: the general posting area is great to quickly inform/remind my students of class/assignment basics. My students have already learned that  quick post in that section yields a faster response, thanks to an almost perfect integration of desktop and phone app.

  2. OneNote is right…there…in…Teams.  There is no need for a google site, a google
    No need to boot the OneNote app or browser!

    document, and OneNote is much more condusive to distance learning and collaborative spaces than Google Classroom.  It’s smoother; with a Teams integration it operates much like the class dungeon guide.  I use mine to post daily lessons and share documents; I even use OneNote as a recordable whiteboard.

3. You can post assignments right into OneNote from Teams.  And then grade them in the same space. To be honest, I’m a little put off that I have to then record grades into a whole other system (MyBackPack is another kind of hell.) To be honest, I’m also kicking myself for not knowing this sooner.  If I had, every class this year would be in Teams (switching through notebooks to grade is very tedious work).

WP34. The channels feature is a great way to engage students in a classroom discussion.  Now, to be transparent, I have not yet tried this function with an English class.  My newspaper staff uses it all the time to comunicate among the different sections (i.e. the Community staff has its own channel and so on).  I’m curious to see how this will work on Wednesday as part of the daily grind of online class.  I’ve posted my discussion question and asked students to respond using the reply function.  I haven’t quite found a happy way to grade their responses yet; I’m hoping that emerges as the chat happens.

5. While I’m using WeVideo to create video content, Teams allows me to store these WP4massive video files in a Course Library.  I could embed them in OneNote, but one limiting feature of OneNote is the cumbersome way videos work and their potential to make loading OneNote a nightmare.  Now, I can just direct my students to the class Teams file library.  I can even post a link to those videos in their OneNote.

6. The video meeting function is so much more necessary when teaching remotely for students, especially international students.  I plan to use it during the paper writing process.  When in a live Teams meeting, you can share a screen.  Imagine the ability to conference with a student who is in Russia about a paper, and the rough draft is on both your screens!  You can also record this meeitng.  I’ve even recorded some of my early videos with this feature, making it a bit easier for those who are inimidated by WeVideo to create video content.

7. (Maybe).  I haven’t yet installed it, but Teams allows its users to add a Wiki.  This may not seem like much, but imagine teaching Watchmen with the Watchmen Wiki for the new HBO series.  Let that sink in. There is a bevy of other add-ins that I’m excited to explore.

I’m really embracing the Kool-Aid and this isn’t lost on me.  While I know that Teams has its limitations, I have to confess: I don’t see online teaching working quite this well anywhere else.  And I’ve used many online platforms- Blackboard, Google Classroom, Weebly, PowerSchool (aka Haiku)- they just don’t have the smooth integration of collaborative space and content delivery as Teams.

Now, if only Microsoft Teams and Twitter could play nice…

I’m home and, with the assumption that nap time will get easier, hoping to post more.  Be prepared: I’m geared up for graphic novels, sci-fi, and superheroes.

Promises, promises: A Review of The Last Wish

Definately my favorite of the group. #fireheart

I tell my students that summer is meant for three things: naps in the sun, travel, and reading anything you want, even if that’s a trashy romance. (Although, I’ll admit that I do try to push drown beg encourage the occasional sci-fi or graphic novel.)  As for my own summer reading, I’ll admit there are some summers when I struggle to read three novels; there are summers where I read my way through so much that sleep only happens in the short time between books.  Last summer was one of the latter; a student gave me a list of YA fiction to read and I found myself spellbound by Leigh Bardugo‘s Six of Crows and the Shadow and Bone trilogy.  Sleep happened only while waiting for the next book in the Throne of Glass series by Sarah J Maas.  By June of this year, I was finishing the Caraval series by Stephanie Garber and I’m still awaiting the last book of Strange the Dreamer by Laini Taylor.

Gunslinger Yuna

Where were these reads when I was ninth grade me, trying to find one badass female in a male protagonist dominated fantasy genre?  At best, I had Mary Stewart’s The Crystal Cave series; if desperate, I could locate my tattered copy of The Mists of Avalon by Marion Zimmer Bradley.  I turned to video games in part because at least in those electronic forms female fantasy characters had powers beyond mere seduction.  Final fantasy was my first exposure to the female mage character (yes Lulu) and later, my favorite female gunslingers (arguably now dethroned by Wyonna Earp) Yuna/Lighting.  My ideal lineup would feature gunslinger Yuna, mage Lulu, and martial expert Buffy.  (And I’d replace Rikku with Anya anyday).  Now while divorcing the genre of fantasy from the seductress trope is crazy talk, I’ll admit it is becoming more acceptable to see male seductresses or (gasp) to read female protagonists who can be both warrior and seductress.  We are getting better.

I have a point.  This summer, I promised my students to read and review a romance novel.  (Silly rabbits, they didn’t put any regulations or define exactly what that might be…)  It was in this spirit (and, arguably, a love of the PS4 game), that my “trashy romance” read of the summer was The Last Wish by Andrzej Sapkowski.  Yes, that’s a Witcher novel.  So, my dear students, as promised, here is my review of a “trashy romance” via the fantasy fiction genre.  Hey, you never said what world or dimension my protagonist needed to live in…

I don’t know why there is a dragon on the front; don’t be misled. While he does mention a dragon, there is not a dragon in this book.

If you have no familiarity with the popular playstation game, know this: while the protagonist is male, the cast of characters is female centered, female focused, and filled with female badassery.  I’m hoping the Netflix show will be true to this as well.  If you have absolutely no familiarity with anything of this (some of us like living under a rock- no judgement), then you should start with the book that inspired it all, The Last WishThe protagonist is Geralt, a witcher (someone who hunts and kills monsters) tending to his wounds; in between his recovery, he remembers parts of his life via flashback.  So yes, this might be called a collection of short stories- each flashback is a stand alone episode that forces Geralt to confront the many different ways that monsters are so much more than fangs and fur.

ive-decided-to-write-my-own-romance-novel-50-shades-11480550I can hear you already, my dear pupils.  You said romance.

The Last Wish is a delicate balance between understanding Geralt and understanding his fetish for the sorcerer Yennifer.  You have to wait for it; Yennifer only fully appears in the last story and when read out of turn, you don’t quite understand why Geralt chooses her. (If you can call it a choosing.)  Make no mistake: she is a complex character with ambition, power, and little patience for the brooding hero.  You’ll like her, you’ll hate her, and you’ll want to be her. But you must first travel with Geralt and Sapkowski through some amazing retellings of popular fairy tales.  You’ll meet a version of Snow White that will inspire countless fan fiction; a re-telling of Beauty and the Beast that will break your heart and ring more true than the original source; and a twisted barely recognizable Cinderella.

See? Now doesn’t that look like the beginnings of an epic saga of romance and swords?

Sapkowski weaves his world of monsters, fairytales, and humans until it’s almost something completely different.  The only thing that tethers us to that world is the heartbreak and ugly truth: some monsters aren’t the imagined atrocities of our dreams.  Some monsters are the truths we deny or the truths we create. And, like Geralt, you’re left with your own code to decipher it all.   If like me, you find yourself fascinated and already writing mini-essays about effeminate, sword welding males and their complicated relationships with ambitious women, you might want to try the next one: Sword of Destiny.  (And if you know a place one could publish said pieces, let me know.)  If you are looking for the next Patrick Rothfuss, then don’t bother.  If you are looking for a world to get lost in, buy it or borrow my copy.

And there you have it.  I have fullfilled my promise.  If you are curious, Marlon James’ Black Leopard Red Wolf is the current read and yes, I’ve already ordered Sword of Destiny.  And because I still have three weeks left, I’ll be starting the Wheel of Time series after reading about it at Everyday Should Be Tuesday.

Now.  What are you reading besides your assigned summer novel?



I promised that I would keep this blog active over the summer break and alas, the weeks have escaped me!  I am working on some educational, PLC related posts (promise), but until then here is an update and some things I’m already looking forward to in the next school year.

  1. Part of my hiatus from this blog is the good news I shared at the end of last school year: my partner and I are expecting our first child in October!  So while I thought I’d be conquering the world during my time off, I’m instead building a small one. We couldn’t be more excited.
  2. After telling my students, they immediately started a pool of baby names, none of which are in the running. However, I’ve realized that my student very much understand who I am; top baby names emailed or pooled were Veidt, Manhattan, Thor, Toni, Calvino, Murakami, and Shakespeare.  (Spoiler alert: we’re expecting a boy.)
  3. I have spent a lot of my summer in a partnership with the Smithsonian American Art Museum building a teacher guide for Visual Thinking Routines in the classroom.  I’ll post more soon.  I’m over the moon about how much of my summer has been spent in that beautiful space.
  4. My reading list is a hodgepodge of genres (a later post coming), but the big surprise is my new found love of James Islington’s Licanius trilogy.  I’m eagerly awaiting the sequel to appear in my library que.  Aruably the best fantasy fiction I’ve read in some time.  I was also surprised of the artistry in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried and Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Buried Giant was something I picked up on a whim and halfway through bought my own copy.
  5. I’m so excited to teach Future Fiction again, especially in the year that HBO releases a sequel to the novel, Watchmen. Let’s see if Lindelof can redeem himself from the Game of Thrones disaster.  Either way, what a great year to teach Moore’s Watchmen and Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale in the same class.

There is my quick update.  I write from my back patio, watching squirrels chase each other.  While I’m enjoying the serenity of the moment, I can’t help but feel anxious to be back in the classroom.

Ah, the paradoxes of teaching.

Post It. Post It Good.

Sometimes I forget that my students cannot (yet) read my mind during instruction.  Not to say I haven’t often imagined a future where the classroom happened in a virtual reality space, much like Neo of The Matrix.  Imagine it: just as Neo spars with Orpheus to learn judo, so could students visual project their paper outlines as teachers move their claims into sound 3-D structures.  Building the better paper, literally.  We’re not far away, especially when you consider that a virtual reality pen app already exists.  Until then, I am perpetually on the prowl for different ways students can visualize the writing process and ways they can embrace the inevitable messiness of it all.

The latter can be particularly difficult for many of my students.  They see their outlines and thesis as a fixed thing: once complete, it remains unchanged and untouched.  Last year, I mandated a “no delete” code in OneNote.  Every outline could be covered in the strike-through function but nothing ever gets deleted.  While it did help them feel less married to a structure and liberated some ideas in favor of better ones, their thesis remained a point of contention.  How would I get them to see a thesis as a changing, breathable thing if it was “the driving claim of my [their] paper?”  How could I get them past “but if I don’t know my thesis, how will I start” and less surprised when I confess that I often write my own introductory paragraphs last?

Full disclosure: I don’t have the perfect solution.

I did, however, have a small revelation.  I am an odd person with some odd night-time rituals.  For example, my ablution supplies share nightstand space with a pack of post it notes and a pen.  I am also a list fanatic.  At the end of many a day, I still have them in my head- lists of books I want to read, lists of new apps someone shared, lists of family members I still need to call, bills yet to be paid, short essays topics I should write- and sleep is a lot easier if I just write them out of my head.  It was in moving these notes to their designated window (this method, while a bit ludicrous, is much more cost effective than a curtain) that it dawns on me.  Sometimes, the analog method is just as effective; sometimes, a post it note can be as trans-formative as a digital notebook.

A smattering of ideas via post it

This last round of essays, I had each student write their first attempt at a thesis in a post it note and then claim a window pane in the classroom windows (I’m blessed with many windows). The second transcription was a brief glance at their working outline.  Each time a thesis was re-drafted, an outline modified, new post-it notes went on glass. Many students would come the next day with last night’s progress, ready to

The pink post-its are teacher feedback!

update their progress.  After a week of workshops, feedback, conferences, and rough drafts, every student re-wrote their final thesis before turning in a rough draft.  I wasn’t surprised that many of them expressed contempt for their original pieces; I was shocked to find that many of them would often return to their window panes to modify not just their thesis but parts of their outline that no longer matched.  I had one student who choose to do a post-it per claim, allowing her to physically see how a different structure might feel to the reader.  Many times, a simple walk to the window yielded wonderful, impromptu conversations about paper structures, syntax solutions, and peer feedback.  My classroom became a hive of activity, the good kind. The simply act of moving the pieces as opposed to typing was crucial in changing the paradigm.

I’m looking forward to see how this works in other modules.  And I’m taking stock in Post Its.

Have Atwood, Will Discuss

31DHh31Hg5L._SX324_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgThree years ago, I replaced George Orwell’s 1984 with Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale in my Future Fiction course; three years later, and the novel carries more cultural currency today than its 1985 print.  Atwood’s narrator Offred is captured by Gilead, a Puritan totalitarian territory situated in what was once Harvard University.  As Offred learns to navigate her new surroundings, the reader must confront the awful truth: every woman in Gilead is property- they are forbidden to read, to have income, to work outside the home- and the toxic aftermath of war has left many women infertile (because in Gilead, men are never presumed infertile). Because her ovaries are healthy, Offred is forced to become a handmaid and assigned to a couple; Offred is meant to serve  Commander much like Sara’s handmaids in the Bible.  Offred will bear child for another woman; her uterus is  an offering, if you will.

When I introduce Offred to Madeira students, many of them see the novel as a cautionary tale, an imagining of what could happen.  This year,   the sexual allegations against Kavanaugh were made public midway through the novel and class that day felt more like a realistic view of status quo.  As a teacher, the Kavanaugh confirmation is exactly that- a realization that so much more still needs to be done.  It isn’t about politics and it isn’t about a president.  It’s recognizing that in many ways, society is still trying to protect women by disarming them.  On one hand, our society has recognized that gender constructivism in children’s toys constricts their expression of identity and yet on the other, we have a political system that turned what should have been a informed, patient investigation into affirmation that calendars are enough to make liars of women. Calendars.

So much of teaching The Handmaid’s Tale has become an acknowledgement of male privilege and the realization that more still needs to be done.  Regardless of political party affiliation, many women today feel similar tensions articulated in the feminists movements of the 1980s; many young women feel the tightening grip of a still male-dominated world.  It was in this vein that I accepted an invitation from the Gonzaga School to host a symposium of female readers from Madeira in dialogue with the male readers of Gonzaga.  Our discussions were lively, our students were impressive, and I felt progress not so far away as I meandered around the room: “The problem isn’t that Offred is female; the problem is how society codes femininity” explains a Madeira student, “to be feminine is to be weak, to need protection.  Any other behavior is met with double standards and negativity.”  I see the Gonzaga students nod in agreement, “We [men] need to say this too.  We need to say these things because we are the ones who can.”

These young men are right; for now. I leave knowing at least there is a younger generation of men willing to call themselves feminists.  And for now, that’s a step in the right direction. After all, as Atwood reminds us, “Anything can happen anywhere, given the right circumstances.”




“We’ll take VTR for $1000 please. “

In July, my application was accepted by the Smithsonian Summer Institute at the American Art Museum (I promise a blog post/review about this to follow soon!).

During the two week long program, teachers learned effective ways to incorporate Visual Thinking Routines from Harvard’s Project Zero into the classroom.  VTR utilizes any non-text source material to engage students in critical thinking skills; this workshop focused particularly on using American Art in application.  The workshop fundamentally re-shaped how I teach analysis and re-invigorated the “warm up” in my classroom.

Capture2There are many arguments for using VTR in the classroom (including the innate interdisciplinary mode of thinking), but I was really invested in the analysis piece.  Many of my students struggle in understanding rhetorical analysis.  This is problematic for any student taking the AP Language exam which includes several types of non-textual components in at least one essay component. Using VTR propels students into evidence building, claim composition, and technique identification- all cornerstone skills necessary for a well written analysis.  This year, I’ve decided to incorporate art and VTR into my junior and senior classrooms.

Catpure 1.PNGMy first introduction of VTR has many different routines, but at the heart of all of them is the idea of claim and support (see above picture).  This is a great way to warm up in the classroom; for my particular course (Native American and Asian American Voices), I chose artwork that would allow students to understand the module as an examination of marginalized voices.  We started with George Caitlin’s “Going To and Returning From Washington.”  The piece explores the effects of European culture on the Native American and many students articulate that tension in different ways.  All of them are pressed to show exactly where in the art is this claim embedded:

Both students arrive at similar conclusion and both provide evidence to support their claim.  This routine is crucial when moving into the next step: comparing visual text to a literary counterpart.

For this particular module, I modeled how to do a comparison of visual and literary text using the artwork from warm-ups; previous exposure help students feel more comfortable in the writing process.  This time, students would view Caitlin’s piece (see above) with Tanaya Winder’s poem, “Missing More Than a Word.”


When paired with the poetry scaffolding lesson I created (see here), this becomes a powerful method in thesis creation.   Many students were able to form a claim about both pieces and identify a technique the artist and poet utilize in their works:

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Once evidence building becomes an important part of forming a claim, many feel much more comfortable developing a stronger thesis.  This was particularly evident in our second comparison (using Hieu Minh Nguyen’s “White Boy Time Machine” and Roger Shimormura’s “Diary: December 12, 1941”).

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At the end of the course, students are asked to answer a comparative analysis prompt within 45 minutes (message me or comment for the prompt).  Between this year and last year’s response, there is a tangible difference: using the VTR has yielded well-supported, sophisticated analysis paragraphs while last year’s response seem to falter in organization structure.

More importantly than all of the quantifiable data is this: my students love the inclusion of art.  It’s the most requested warm-up!

And I’m just as excited to continue using VTR in the classroom this year; I’ll continue to post progress.  Thank you to the Smithsonian Learning Lab for beautiful high-definition free access to their collection!


Rhetoric, Reflection, and Scholarly Titles: How Taking a History (and Poetry) Course Can Remap Your Courses

I firmly believe that in every teacher, there is a student eager to return to the classroom.  I see in my colleagues the same eagerness in choosing their PD (professional development) as I feel when taking a new class.  We are innate learners and we learn well.  It is in this spirit that I elected to take two courses as my PD.  It is in this spirit that I chose a course to refresh my history and a course to invigorate my love of poetry.  It is in this spirit that I realize I have fundamentally stubbled into some powerful realizations, beyond the affirmation that taking a class, even an online one, is a great PD option for any teacher.  (I took mine with the Harvard Extension School; I’ll be happy to share the application process with anyone interested.)  While I could write long, lengthy paragraphs about each of these realizations, I also understand that the average student (teacher-in-training) may only survive four paragraphs to a blog post about someone else’s PD experience.  So, in this spirit, I’m sharing a more “interdisciplinary epiphany”: if you want to teach empathy, begin with history.  If you want to train civil rights champions, give them art. If you want them to understand empathy and logically argue about its necessity in our everyday world, temper this infusion of history and art with the sciences.

Allow me to explain.

The history course selected is titled, “From Nat Turner to the Roots: Slavery and Civil Rights in America.”  My selection of this was pragmatic: it’s been a while since I visited the historical contexts of African American literature.  Last year, in the middle of restructuring the junior modules, Dr. Keith Ward and I thought it fitting to pair rhetorical analysis in the Slavery to Civil Rights component.  So much of the rhetoric of that time-period is impossible to divorce of historical context.  Taking this course was a great way to refresh my own memory and improve the content delivery for many of the 11th grade English modules.   In that way, the course was very successful; in a completely different way, it fundamentally re-shaped how I want to teach cornerstone abolitionists and civil rights texts.  The course forces students to re-analyze the Civil War in terms of collective belief and community rhetoric; in this examination, much of the narrative of the Civil War is controlled by an archaic, protected Southern ideal (much of which is couched in the “the war was also about state’s rights” arguments found in many past and contemporary pieces).  This controlling narrative, this push to re-frame the Civil War in terms of a disagreement about economy or about the over-reaching federal government has become a way to continue avoiding difficult conversations concerning racism in our country today.

I think in another life I would have been a history teacher.

How does this all relate to an English classroom?  Some of my focus this year has been justifying the rhetorical additions based on an AP Language exam and giving students experiences to master this skill set.  After taking this course, I’m realizing this is the wrong focus.  Instead, I want to help my students understand how and why rhetoric is necessary to battle injustice, to create narratives that are true, genuine, and empowering.  Frederick Douglass wasn’t just speaking about his experience as a slave; he was risking his life to tell the truth, to force a nation into confrontation, and reveal the hypocrisy of a promised ideal.  So much of Douglass’ vernacular is found again in Lincoln’s rhetoric; the transference of knowledge is evident in the changed rhetoric of both men post meeting.  That’s how effective rhetoric is it can bring a nation to war and unite it again under different terms, simply by sharing words.  In many ways, the documents surrounding the Civil War- political cartoons, speeches, newspaper articles, photographs- are incredible real-world examples of how rhetoric is an important part of cultural currency, citizenship, and literacy.  I hope that re-working some of my own lessons and assessments becomes a way for my students to understand the very real implications we face as a society when we stop questioning a narrative, when we take an argument at face value, when we stop asking questions and responding to our world in words. This course not only affirmed my own faith in the power of rhetoric but forced me to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering that same affirmation for my students.

Even more so, I’m more motivated than ever to create spaces in my schedule to write.  Company is welcome. (Email me.)  And if prose isn’t your forte, ask me about my poetry class.  Just bring your good pen.


National Write-A-Poetry-Paper Month!


April is National Poetry Month and with a bit of scheduling luck, I find myself knee-deep in Harlem Renaissance poetry. Let me be upfront: I love poetry.  (I make no claims of ability to write poetry. )  I love that a line break can mean so much more than the return stroke on a keyboard; I love deciphering how one writer selected this adjective, that phrase, these punctuation marks.  I love teaching the Harlem Renaissance greats: Langston Hughes, Angela Weld Grimke, Claude McKay- their works answer tradition with a mixing and reinventing so unique to their experience of the 20th century.

I. Love. Poetry.

Many of my students, however, struggle to find the same comfortableness in poetry that they have in novel study.  This is not particularly a new truth for teachers; many students report poetry analysis as the most difficult or elusive task.  A quick google search will yield thousands of worksheets, methodologies, acronyms, and suggested poems for implementation.  For years, I’ve proscribed to the the TPCASTT method (Title, Paraphrase, Connotation, Attitudes, Shift, Title, Theme) and in the last three, I’m not entirely sold on its effectiveness.  Understanding connotation means understanding the intentional inferences of a word; attitudes relies on knowing the difference between tone and mood.  In this method, all of this happens before a realization of theme.  This year, I decided I would do a study of comparison.  I used TPCASTT in the early modules of the Modernism class and in these last modules, I am implementing my own poetry toolkit for classroom use.

Scaffold Technique for Poetry

My early Modernism modules demonstrated exactly what I feared: my students did not identify poetic terms or differentiate their use from novel study and their annotations focused too much on basic understanding of figurative language.  Many of my students felt so overwhelmed by the TPCASTT system that their thesis compositions included every device, rather than selecting the best use of that term according to their claim.  I knew that in developing my own annotation system, I wanted some kind a scaffolding, a way for my students to feel the move from simple annotation to complicated analysis.  I knew that the first scaffold would be an exploration of the poem and its meaning.  The second scaffold would narrow a literary analysis to just the essentials.  The last step would involve syntax focus and claim development.  The difference has meant a much more organized approach to annotating yet still relies on the student to understand and select poetic devices; the chart has greatly improved the evaluation of syntax.  As seen in the student artifact below, leveling the scaffold asks the student to evaluate the intent of the poem before a dive into syntax; the syntax progresses into a thesis or claim about the poem.

Student Scaffold
Student Artifact of Claude McKay’s America”

Implementation is just one part of re-inventing how I teach poetry (more soon on helping students categorize kinds of literary terms).  I am hoping the third tier in this technique will push them into a thesis development.  Since I am a firm believer in providing examples or demonstrating active practice, we reviewed Langston Hughes’ “Advertisement for Waldorf-Astoria” using this technique and then color coded parts of the chart used for introductory paragraph building.

Using the tier system to move into introductory paragraphs

I’m anxious to see how this system helps move them into analysis and paper construction.  Mostly, I’m excited to explore poetry during National Poetry Month!

Stay tuned for Part II: The Poetry Paper Outline.